Mortgage Fraud 101: Maxims of Equity and Commerce


Mortgage Fraud 101: Maxims of Equity and Commerce

Maxims of Equity

Here lie the Maxims of Equity:

Equity regarding what ought to be done
Equity will not suffer a wrong to be without a remedy
Equity delights in equality
One who seeks equity must do equity
Equity aids the vigilant, not those who slumber on their rights
Equity imputes an intent to fulfill an obligation
Equity acts in personam
Equity abhors a forfeiture
Equity does not require an idle gesture
One who comes into equity must come with clean hands
Equity delights to do justice and not by halves
Equity will take jurisdiction to avoid a multiplicity of suits
Equity follows the law
Equity will not aid a volunteer
Between equal equities the law will prevail
Between equal equities the first in order of time shall prevail
Equity will not complete an imperfect gift
Equity will not allow a statute to be used as a cloak for fraud
Equity will not allow a trust to fail for want of a trustee

In the Laws of Commerce, the eternal and unchanging principle of the law are:

1. A workman is worthy of his hire. Authorities: Exodus 20:15; Lev. 19:13; Matt. 10:10; Luke 10:7; II Tim. 2:6. Legal maxim: “It is against equity for freemen not to have the free disposal of their own property.

2. All are equal under the law (God’s Law-Moral and Natural Law). Authorities: Exodus 21:23-25; Lev. 24:17-21; Deut. 1:17, 19:21; Matt. 22:36-40; Luke 10:17; Col. 3:25. Legal maxims: “No one is above the law.”; “Commerce, by the law of nations, ought to be common, and not to be converted into a monopoly and the private gain of a few.”

3. In commerce, truth is sovereign. See Exodus 20:16; Psalms 117:2; John 8:32; II Cor. 13:8. Legal maxim: “To lie is to go against the mind.” Oriental proverb: “Of all that is good, sublimity is supreme.”

4. Truth is expressed in the form of an Affidavit. See Lev. 5:4-5; Lev. 6:3-5; Lev. 19:11-13; Num. 30:2; Matt. 5:33; James 5:12.

5. A matter must be expressed to be resolved. See Heb. 4:16; Phil. 4:5; Eph. 6:19-21. Legal maxim: “He who fails to assert his rights has none.”

6. An unrebutted affidavit stands as truth in commerce. See 1 Pet. 1:25; Heb. 6:13-15. Legal maxim: “He who does not deny, admits.”

7. An unrebutted affidavit becomes a judgment in commerce. See Heb. 6:16-17. Any proceeding in court, tribunal, or arbitration forum consists of a contest, or “duel,” of commercial affidavits wherein the points remaining unrebutted in the end stand as the truth and the matters to which the judgment of the law is applied.

8. He who leaves the field of battle first (does not respond to Affidavit) loses by default. See Book of Job; Matt 10:22. Legal maxim: “He who does not repel a wrong when he can occasions it.”

9. Sacrifice is the measure of credibility. One who is not damaged, put at risk, or willing to swear an oath on his commercial liability for the truth of his statements and legitimacy of his actions has no basis to assert claims or charges and forfeits all credibility and right to claim authority. See Acts 7, life/death of Stephen. Legal maxim: “He who bears the burden ought also to derive the benefit.”

10. A lien or claim, under commercial law, can only be satisfied by one of the following actions. See Gen. 2-3; Matt 4; Revelation. Legal maxim: “If the plaintiff does not prove his case , the defendant is absolved.”

10.1. A rebuttal Affidavit of Truth, supported by evidence, point-by-point.
10.2. Payment.
10.3. Agreement.
10.4. Resolution by a jury according to the rules of common law.


• Leviticus 19:15 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment: thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honor the person of the mighty: but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbor. –

• John 8:17 “Even in your law it has been written that the testimony of two men is true.

• Matthew 18:16 “But if he does not listen to you, take one or two more with you, so that BY THE MOUTH OF TWO OR THREE WITNESSES EVERY FACT MAY BE CONFIRMED.

• 2 Corinthians 13:1 This is the third time I am coming to you. EVERY FACT IS TO BE CONFIRMED BY THE TESTIMONY OF TWO OR THREE WITNESSES.

• Deuteronomy 19:15 “A single witness shall not rise up against a man on account of any iniquity or any sin which he has committed; on the evidence of two or three witnesses a matter shall be confirmed.

Bouvier’s Maxims

Contra veritatem lex numquam aliquid permittit. The law never suffers anything contrary to truth. 2 Co. Inst. 252. But sometimes it allows a conclusive presumption in opposition to truth. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3061.

Contractus legem ex conventione accipiunt. The agreement of the parties makes the law of hte contract. Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6.

Contractus ex turpi caus�, vel contr� bonos mores nullus est. A contract founded on a base and unlawful consideration, or against good morals, is null. Hob. 167; Dig. 2, 14, 27, 4.

Cujus per errorem dati repetitio est, ejus consult� dati donatio est. Whoever pays by mistake what he does not owe, may recover it back; but he who pays, knowing he owes nothing; is presumed to give.

Culpa lata aequiparatur dolo. A concealed fault is equal to a deceit.

Cum confitente sponte mitius est agendum. One making a voluntary confession, is to be dealt with more mercifully. 4 Co. Inst. 66.

De fide et officio judicis non recipitur quaestio; sed de scientia, sive error sit juris sive facti. Of the credit and duty of a judge, no question can arise; but it is otherwise respecting his knowledge, whether he be mistaken as to the law or fact. Bacon’s max. Reg. 17.

Delegata potestas non potest delegari. A delegated authority cannot be again delegated. 2 Co. Inst. 597; 5 Bing. N. C. 310; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1300.

Dolosus versatur generalibus. A deceiver deals in generals. 2 Co. 34.

Dormiunt aliquando leges, nunquam moriuntur. The laws sometimes sleep, but neyer die. 2 Co. Inst. 161.

Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat. The burden of the proof lies upon him who affirms, not he who denies. Dig. 22, 3, 2; Tait on Ev. 1; 1 Phil. Ev. 194; 1 Greenl. Ev. 74; 3 Louis. R. 83; 2 Dan. Pr. 408; 4 Bouv Inst. n. 4411.

Ejus est non nolle, qui potest velle. He who may consent tacitly, may consent expressly. Dig. 50, 17, 8.

Error fucatus nud� veritate in multis est probabilior; et saepenumero rationibus vincit veritatem error. Error artfully colored is in many things more probable than naked truth; and frequently error conquers truth and reasoning. 2 Co. 73.

Error qui non resistitur, approbatur. An error not resisted is approved. Doct. & Stud. c. 70.

Error scribentis nocere non debet. An error made by a clerk ought not to injure; a clerical error may be corrected.

Ex dolo malo non oritur action. Out of fraud no action arises. Cowper, 343; Broom’s Max. 349.

Ex facto jus oritur. Law arises out of fact; that is, its application must be to facts.

Ex nudo pacto non oritur action. No actions arises on a naked contract without a consideration. See Nudum Pactum.

Ex tota materia emergat resolutio. The construction or resolution should arise out of the whole subject matter.

Facta sunt potentiora verbis. Facts are more powerful than words.

Fraus est celare fraudem. It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 1 Vern. 270.

Fraus est odiosa et non praesumenda. Fraud is odious and not to be presumed. Cro. Car. 550.

Fraus et dolus nemini patrocianari debent. Fraud and deceit should excuse no man. 3 Co. 78.

Fraus et jus numquam cohabitant. Fraud and justice never agree together. Wing. 680.

Fraus latet in generalibus. Fraud lies hid in general expressions.

Fraus meretur fraudem. Fraud deserves fraud. Plow. 100. This is very doubtful morality.

Id certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is certain which may be rendered certain. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 929; 2 Bl. Com. 143; 4 Kernt com. 462; 4 Pick 179.
Idem est facere, et nolle prohibere cum possis. It is the same thing to do a thing as not to prohibit it when in your power. 3 Co. Inst. 178.

Idem est nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere. It is the same thing to say nothing and not to say it sufficiently. 2 Co. Inst. 178.

Id perfectum est quod ex omnibus suis partibus constat. That is perfect which is complete in all its parts. 9 Co. 9.

In consimili casu consilile debet esse remedium. In similar cases the remedy should be similar. Hard. 65.

In conventibus contrahensium voluntatem potius quam verba spectari placuit. In the agreements of the contracting parties, the rule is to regard the intention rather than the words. Dig. 50, 16, 219.

In maleficio ratihabitio mandato comparatur. He who ratifies a bad action is considered as having ordered it. Dig. 50, 17, 152, 2.

In omnibus contractibus, sive nominatis sive innominatis, permutatio continetur. In every contract, whether nominate or innominate, there is implied a consideration.

In traditionibus scriptorum non quod dictum est, sed quod gestum est, inscpicitur.
In the delivery of writing, not what is said, but what is done is to be considered. 9 co. 137.

Incerta pro nullius habentur. Things uncertain are held for nothing Dav. 33.

Incerta quantitas vitiat acium. An uncertain quantity vitiates the act. 1 Roll. R. 465.

Iniquum est ingenuis hominibus non esse liberam rerum suarum alienationem. It is against equity to deprive freeman of the free disposal of their own property. Co. Litt. 223. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 455, 460.

Invito beneficium non datur. No one is obligedto accept a benefit against his consent. Dig. 50, 17, 69. But if he does not siddent he will be considered as assenting. Vide Assent.

Judex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur. The judge is condemned when the guilty are acquitted.

Judicia sunt tanquam juris dicta, et pro veritate accipiuntur. Judgments are, as it were, the dicta or sayings of the law, and are received as truth. 2 Co. Inst. 573.

Judicium � non suo judice datum nullius est momenti. A judgment given by an improper judge is of no moment. 11 Co. 76.

Judicium non debet esse illusorium, suum effectum habere debet. A judgment ought not to be illusory, it ought to have its consequence. 2 In

Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur. A judgment is always taken for truth. 2 Co. Inst. 380.

Jurato creditur in judicio. He who makes oath is to be believed in judgment.

Jus et fraudem numquam cohabitant. Right and fraud never go together.

Jus ex injuria non oritur. A right cannot arise from a wrong. 4 Bing. 639.

Legibus sumptis disinentibus, lege naturae utendum est. When laws imposed by the state fail, we must act by the law of nature. 2 Roll. R. 298.

Les fictions naissent de la loi, et non la loi des fictions. Fictions arise from the law, and not law from fictions.

Lex semper dabit remedium. The law always gives a remedy. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2411.

Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur. The law speaks to all with one mouth. 2 Inst. 184.

Liberum corpus aestimationem non recipit. The body of a freeman does not admit of valuation.

Libertas inaestimabilis res est. Liberty is an inestimable good. Dig. 50, 17, 106.

Locus contractus regit actum. The place of the contract governs the act.

Locus contractus regit actum. The place of the contract governs the act.

Longa possessio est pacis jus. Long possession is the law of peace. Co. Litt. 6.

Longa possessio parit jus possidendi, et tollit actionem vero domino. Long possession produces the right of possession, and takes away from the true owner his action. Co. Litt. 110.

Longum tempus, et longus usus qui excedit memoria hominum, sufficit pro jure. Long time and long use, beyond the memory of man, suffices for right. Co. Litt. 115.

Manga negligentia culpa est, magna culpa dolus est. Gross negligence is a fault, gross fault is a fraud. Dig 50, 16, 226.

Magna culpa dolus est. Great neglect is equivalent to fraud. Dig. 50, 16, 226; 2 Spears, R. 256; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 646.

Malum quo communius eo pejus. The more common the evil, the worse.

Maxime ita dicta quia maxima ejus dignitas et certissima auctoritas, atque quod maxim� omnibus probetur. A maxim is so called because its dignity is chiefest, and its authority most certain, and because universally approved by all. Co. Litt. 11.

Maxim� paci sunt contraria, vis et injuria. The greatest enemies to peace are force and wrong. Co. Litt. 161.

Multitudo imperitorum perdit curiam. A multitude of ignorant practitioners destroys a court. 2 Co. Inst. 219.

Nemo debet rem suam sine facto aut defectu suo amittere. No one should lose his property without his act or negligence. Co. Litt. 263.

Nihil possumus contra veritatem. We can do nothing against truth. Doct. & Stu. Dial. 2, c. 6.

Nihil simul inventum est et perfectum. Nothing is invented and perfected at the same moment. Co. Litt. 230.

Nihil tam naturale est, qu�m eo genere quidque dissolvere, quo colligatum est. It is very natural that an obligation should not be dissolved but by the same principles which were observed in contracting it. Dig. 50, 17, 35. See 1 Co. 100; 2 Co. Inst. 359.

Par in parem imperium non habet. An equal has no power over an equal. Jenk. Cent. 174. Example: One of two judges of the same court cannot commit the other for contempt.

Partus sequitur ventrem. The offspring follow the condition ofhte mother. This is the law in the case of slaves and animals; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 167, 502; but with regard to freemen, children follow the condition of the father.

Peccata contra naturam sunt gravissima. Offences against nature are the heaviest. 3 Co. Inst. 20.

Peccatum peccato addit qui culpae quam facit patrocinium defensionis adjungit. He adds one offence to another, who, when he commits a crime, joins to it the protection of a defence. 5 Co. 49.

Per rerum naturam, factum negantis nulla probatio est. It is in the nature of things that he who denies a fact is not bound to prove it.

Perspicua vera non sunt probanda. Plain truths need not be proved. Co. Litt. 16.
Pirata est hostis humani generis. A pirate is an enemy of the human race. 3 Co. Inst. 113.

Plus peccat auctor quam actor. The instigator of a crime is worse than he who perpetrates it. 5 Co. 99.

Plus valet unus oculatus testis, quam auriti de cem. One eye witness is better than ten ear ones. 4 Inst. 279.

Posito uno oppositorum negatur alterum. One of two opposite positions being affirmed, the other is denied. 3 Ro..l R. 422.

Possession is a good title, where no better title appears. 20 Vin. Ab. 278.

Possessor has right against all men but him who has the very right.

Potest quis renunciare pro se, et suis, juri quod pro se introductum est. A man may relinquish, for himself and his heirs, a right which was introduced for his own benefit. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 83.

Praepropera consilia, raro sunt prospera. Hasty counsels are seldom prosperous. 4 Inst. 57.

Praestat cautela quam medela. Prevention is better than cure. Co. Litt. 304.

Praesumptio violenta, plena probatio. Strong presumption is full proof.

Praesumptio violenta valet in lege. Strong presumption avails in law.

Praesentia corporis tollit errorem nominis, et veritas nominis tollit errorem demonstrationis. The presence of the body cures the error in the name; the truth of the name cures an error in the description. Bacon’s Max. Reg. 25.

Principium est potissima pars cujusque rei. The principle of a thing is its most powerful part. 10 Co. 49.

Prior tempore, potior jure. He who is before in time, is preferred in right.

Privatorum conventio juri publico non derogat. Private agreements cannot derogate from public law. Dig. 50, 17, 45, 1.

Privilegium est beneficium personale et extinguitur cum person�. A privilege is a personal benefit and dies with the person. 3 Buls. 8.

Privilegium est quasi privata lex. A privilege is, as it were, a private law. 2 Buls. 8.

Probandi necessitas incumbit illi ui agit. The necessity of proving lies with him who makes the charge.

Quae cohaerent personae � person� separari nequeunt. Things which belong to the person ought not to be separated from the person. Jenk. Cent. 28.

Quae communi legi derogant stricte interpretantur. Laws which derogate from the common law ought to be strictly construed. Jenk. Cent. 231.

Quae contra rationem juris introducta sunt, non debent trahi in consequentiam. Things introduced contrary to the reason of the law, ought not to be drawn into precedents. 12 Co. 75.

Quae dubitationis caus� tollendae inseruntur communem legem non laedunt. Whatever is inserted for the purpose of removing doubt, does not hurt or affect the common law. Co. Litt. 205.

Quaeras de dubiis, legem bene discere si vis. Inquire into them, is the way to know what things are really true. Litt. 443.

Quam longum debet esse rationabile tempus, non definitur in lege, sed pendet ex discretione justiciariorum. What is reasonable time, the law does not define; it is left to the discretion of the judges. Co. Litt. 56. See 11 Co. 44.

Quando do una et eadem re, duo onerabiles existunt, unus, pro insufficientia alterius, de integro onerabitur. When two persons are liable on a joint obligation, if one makes default the other must bear the whole. 2 Co. Inst. 277.

Quando duo juro concurrunt in und person�, aequum est ac si essent in diversis. When two rights concur in one person, it is the same as if they were in two separate persons. 4 Co. 118.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, concedere videtur id sine quo res ipsa esse non potest. When the law gives anything, it gives the means of obtaining it. 5 Co. 47.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, omnia incidentia tacite conceduntur. When the law gives anything, it gives tacitly what is incident to it. 2 Co. Inst. 326; Hob. 234.

Quando lex est specialis, ratio autem generalis, generaliter lex est intelligenda. When the law is special, but its reason is general, the law is to be understood generally. 2 co. Inst. 83; 10 Co. 101.

Qui accusat integrae famae sit et non criminosus. Let him who accuses be of a clear fame, and not criminal. 3 Co. Inst. 26.

Qui adimit medium, dirimit finem. He who takes away the means, destroys the end. Co. Litt. 161.

Qui aliquid staruerit parte inaudita altera, aequum licet dixerit, haud aequum facerit. He who decides anything, a party being unheard, though he should decide right, does wrong. 6 Co. 52.

Qui evertit causam, evertit causatum futurum. He who overthrows the cause, overthrows its future effects. 10 Co. 51.

Qui facit per alium facit per se. He who acts by or through another, acts for himself. 1 Bl. Com. 429; Story, Ag. 440; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1273, 1335, 1336; 7 Man. & Gr. 32, 33.

Qui in utero est, pro jam nato habetur quoties de ejus commodo quaeritur. He who is in the womb, is considered as born, whenever it is for his benefit.

Qui jure suo utitur, nemini facit injuriam. He who uses his legal rights, harms no one.

Qui jussu judicis aliquod fuerit non videtur dolo malo fecisse, quia parere necesse est. He who does anything by command of a judge, will not be supposed to have acted from an improper motive, because it was necessary to obey. 10 Co. 76.

Qui male agit, odit lucem. He who acts badly, hates the light. 7 Co. 66.

Qui melius probat, melius habet. He who proves most, recovers most. 9 Vin. Ab. 235

Qui non libere veritatem pronunciat, proditor est verilatis. He who does not willingly speak the truth, is a betrayer of the truth.

Qui non obstat quod obstare potest facere videtur. He who does not prevent what he can, seems to commit the thing. 2 Co. Inst. 146.

Qui non prohibit quod prohibere potest assentire videtur. He who does not forbid what he can forbid, seems to assent. 2 Inst. 305.

Qui non propulsat injuriam quando potest, infert. He who does not repel a wrong when he can, induces it. Jenk. Cent. 271.

Que obstruit aditum, destruit commodum. He who obstructs an entrance, destroys a convenience. Co. Litt. 161.

Qui omne dicit, nihil excludit. He who says all, excludes nothing. 4 Inst. 81.

Qui parcit nocentibus, innocentibus punit. He who spares the guilty, punishes the innocent.

Qui per alium facit per seipsum facere videtur. He who does anything through another, is considered as doing it himself. Co. Litt. 258.

Qui per fraudem agit, frustra agit. He who acts fraudrlently acts in vain. 2 Roll. R. 17.

Qui potest et debet vetare, jubet. He who can and ought to forbid, and does not, commands.

Qui tacet consentire videtur. He who is silent appears to consent. Jenk. Cent. 32.

Quod ad jus naturale attinet, omnes homenes aequales sunt. All men are equal before the natural law. Dig. 50, 17, 32.

Quod alias bonum et justum est, si per vim vel fraudem petatur, malum et injustum efficitur. What is otherwise good and just, if sought by force or fraud, becomes bad and unjust. 3 Co. 78.

Quod constat clare, non debet verificari. What is clearly apparent need not be proved.

Quod est necessarium est licitum. What is necessary is lawful.

Quod initio vitiosum est, non potest tractu temporis convalescere. Time cannot render valid an act void in its origin. Dig. 50, 17, 29.

Quod non apparet non est, et non apparet judicialiter ante judicium. What appears not does not exist, and nothing appears judicially before judgment. 2 Co. Inst. 479.

Quod nullius est id ratione naturali occupanti conceditur. What belongs to no one, naturally belong to the first occupant. Inst. 2, 1, 12; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 491.

Quod nullius esse potest, id ut alicujus fieret nulla obligatio valet efficere. Those things which cannot be acquired as property, cannot be the object of an agreement. Dig. 50, 17, 182.

Ratihabitiio mandato aequiparatur. Ratification is equal to a command. Dig. 46, 3, 12, 4.

Ratio est formalis causa consueetudinis. Reason is the formal cause of custom.

Ratio est legis anima, mutata legis ratione mutatur et lex. Reason is the soul of the law; the reason of the law being changed, the law is also changed.

Ratio est radius divini luminis. Reason is a ray of divine light. Co. Litt. 232.

Ratio et auctoritas duo clarisima mundi limina. Reason and authority are the two brightest lights in the world. 4 Co. Inst. 320.

Ratio in jure aequitas integra. Reason in law is perfect equity.

Ratio legis est anima legis. The reason of the law is the soul of the law.

Ratio non clauditur loco. Reason is not confined to any place.

Ratio potest allegari deficiente lege, sed vera et legalis et non apparens. Reason may be alleged when the law is defective, but it must be true and legal reason, and not merely apparent. 6 Co. Litt. 191.

Regula pro lege, si deficit lex. In default of the law, the maxim rules.

Remedies ought to be reciprocal.

Reprobata pecunia liberat solventum. Money refused liberates the debtor. 9 Co. 79. But this must be understood with a qualification. See Tender.

Responsio unius non omnino auditur. The answer of one witness shall not be heard at all. 1 Greenl. Ev. 260. This is a maxim of the civil law, where everything must be proved by two witnesses.

Sacramentum habet in se tres comites, varitatem, justitiam et judicium; veritas habenda est in jurato; justitia et justicium in judice. An oath has in it three component parts – truth, justice and judgment; truth in the party swearing; justice and judgment in the judge administering the oath. 3 Co. Inst. 160.

Sacramentum si fatuum fuerit, licet falsum, tamen non committit perjurium. A foolish oath, though false, makes not perjury. 2 Co. Inst. 167.

Satisfaction should be made to that fund which has sustained the loss. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3731.

Scientia utrimque per pares contrahentes facit. Equal knowledge on both sides makes the contracting parties equal.

Secundum naturam est, commoda cujusque rei eum sequi, quem sequentur incommoda. It is natural that he who bears the charge of a thing, should receive the profits. Dig. 50, 17, 10.

Semper necessitas probandi incumbit qui agit. The claimant is always bound to prove: the burden of proof lies on him.

Si quis custos fraudem pupillo fecerit, a tutela removendus est. If a guardian behave fraudently to his ward, he shall be removed from the guardianship. Jenk. Cent. 39.

Stabit praesumptio donec probetur in contrarium. A presumption will stand good until the contrary is proved. Hob. 297.

Tacita quaedam habentur pro expressis. Things silent are sometimes considered as expressed. 8 Co. 40.

Ubi factum nullum ibi sortia nulla. Where there is no deed committed, there can be no consequence. 4 Co. 43.

Ubi jus, ibi remedium. Where there is a right, there is a remedy. 1 T. R. 512; Co. Litt. 197, b; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2411; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3726.

Ubi jus incertum, ibi jus nullum. Where the law is uncertain, there is no law.

Ubi non est condendi auctoritas, ibi non est parendi necessitas. Where there is no authority to enforce, there is no authority to obey. Dav. 69.

Ubicunque est injuria, ibi damnum sequitur. Whereever there is a wrong, there damages follow. 10 Co. 116.

Veritas nihil veretur nisi abscondi. Truth fears nothing but concealment. 9 co. 20.

Veritas nimium altercando amittitur. By too much altercation truth is lost. Hob. 344.

Veritatem qui non libere pronunciat, proditor est veritatis. He who does not speak the truth, is a traitor to the truth.

When the law presumes the affirmative, the negative is to be proved. 1 Roll. R. 83; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3063, 3090

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